|Name||Tissue||Type of pathologies|
|Acute and chronic muscle aches and pain||Muscle||Pain management|
|Acute and chronic cervical and lumbar pain||Muscle||Idiopathic cervical and low back pain|
|Acute and chronic soft tissue wounds||Skin||Wounds|
|Calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Chronic distal biceps tendinopathy||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathy||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Diseases secondary to trigger points and myofascial Pain||Muscle||Myofascial pain syndrome|
|Greater trochanteric pain syndrome||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Insertional Achilles tendinopathy||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Medial tibial stress syndrome||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Mid-body Achilles tendinopathy||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Osgood-Schlatter disease||Bone||Disturbance of musculoskeletal development|
|Patella tip syndrome||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Primary and secondary lymphedema||Skin||Lymphedema|
|Primary long bicipital tenosynovitis||Tendons||Tendinitis|
|Proliferative connective tissue disorders||Connective tissue||Fibrosis|
|Spasticity||Central nervous system||Cerebral palsy and stroke|
|Subacromial pain syndrome||Tendons||Tendinopathy|
|Trigger points||Muscle||Myofascial pain syndrome|
Lymphedema may be primary or secondary. Primary lymphedema is a lymphatic malformation developing during the later stage of lymphangiogenesis. In contrast, secondary lymphedema is the result of disruption or obstruction of the lymphatic system.
Secondary lymphedema can occur as a consequence of tumors, surgery, infection, inflammation, radiation therapy and trauma. Secondary lymphedema is one of the most significant complications after the surgical treatment of breast cancer, with significant impact on the quality of life. A substantial number of women develop secondary lymphedema after surgical treatment of breast cancer, with reported incidence between 6% and 63% depending on the population studied, the measurement criteria used and the reported length of follow-up.
Lymphedema is divided in three stages.
Stage IA (latent lymphedema) presents without clinical evidence of edema, but with impaired lymph transport capacity.
Stage IB (initial lymphedema) is characterized by edema that totally or partially decreases by rest and draining position.
In Stage IIA (increasing lymphedema) vanishing lymph transport capacity is seen and fibroindurative skin changes appear.
Stage IIB (column shaped limb fibrolymphedema) presents with lymphostatic skin changes and worsening disability.
In Stage IIIA (elephantiasis) scleroindurative pachydermitis and papillomatous lymphostatic verrucosis is observed together with life-threatening disability, and Stage IIIIB is extreme elephantiasis with total disability.
Diagnosis of lymphedema is based on the clinical features of the disease (extremity circumference measurement before and after surgery; a difference of more than 2 cm points to the development of lymphedema). Diagnostic imaging (plain radiographs, duplex ultrasonography, radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy and other imaging modalities) should be considered to rule out other causes of increased extremity circumferences, or to establish the diagnosis of lymphedema when in doubt.
Treatment should start with manual lymphatic drainage and compression bandage-centered decongestive lymphatic therapy. An alternative is sequential intermittent pneumatic compression using pumping devices. Radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) has been demonstrated being efficient for lymphedema stages IIA and IIB. Surgery should be considered for recalcitrant cases of lymphedema not responding or responding poorly to the aforementioned treatment options. Surgical options include lympho-venous or lympho-venous-lymphatic bypass anastomosis, lympho-lymphatic segmental interposition, free lymph node transplantation, and ablative surgery in case of massive limb changes or fibrotic induration.
Michelini et al., Eur J Lymphol 2008;19:10.
Treatment of lymphedema with shockwave therapy: preliminary studyREAD ABSTRACT
|Number of treatment sessions||6 to 8|
|Interval between two sessions||2 times a week|
|Air pressure Evo Blue®||2 to 4 bar|
|Air pressure Power+||1.5 to 3 bar|
|Impulses||1000 impulses / cm2|
|Frequency||8Hz to 12Hz|
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